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Taiwan Historian Network

Saturday, May 9, 2015

05-09 [翻譯] 為支持日本國內歷史學者們而發的公開信 OPEN LETTER IN SUPPORT OF HISTORIANS IN JAPAN


8月1日增補:這封公開信連署的學者有增加,請參考 The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 整理(按,Japan Focus改版後網址改變,公開信連署請參見此處)。

寫在前面:
5月6日韓聯社發表了這份由187位英語世界學者(以美國為主)的連署公開信(韓聯社中文報導),隨後國內如《聯合報》等媒體陸續跟進,但有一些報導有失準確(例如公開信本身並未要求日本道歉,而是採取行動)。

這份公開信看得出來花了不少心思斟酌字句,可以說是面面俱到。而連署者除了媒體報導的學者如道爾(John W. Dower,代表作《擁抱戰敗》已經有簡體版,很可惜臺灣一直沒有引進他的著作)、傅高義(這個應該是人盡皆知)、康明斯(Bruce Cumings,代表作 The Origins of the Korean War ,非常厚重的大書。臺灣是前幾年左岸引進了他的《朝鮮戰爭》)、畢克斯(Herbert Bix,代表作 Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan,臺灣由時報以《裕仁天皇》為名出版,目前絕版)之外,尚有許多要角,可說是份量十足。

例如,美國研究日本史的大咖,才剛在2012年因其長年的研究促進日、美的相互了解,而獲得日本政府頒授旭日中綬章的 Peter Duus(近年代表作為研究日本帝國主義的 The Abacus and the Sword  );又如哈佛大學的日本近代史權威 Andrew Gordon(代表作The Evolution of Labor Relations in Japan: Heavy Industry, 1853–1955,有簡體譯本。臺灣比較容易買到的是他編撰的教科書 A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present。最新翻譯版由香港中文大學出版社以《200年日本史:德川以來的近代化進程》印行)。其他像是 The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 的編輯 Mark Selden(賽爾登,他比較為臺灣所知的學術著作,應該是與裴宜理合編的 Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance,繁體中譯本由香港中文大學出版社以《中國社會:變革、衝突與抗爭》印行);天普大學日本校區亞洲研究學程主任,經常在 The Japan Times 上寫評論的 Jeff Kingston,乃至近年來研究東亞歷史教科書與記憶問題的新秀 Daniel Sneider 都有簽署。
進一步來看,這份名單之中日裔或日籍者也不算少數。除了鼎鼎大名,國際關係與外交史的大家 Akira Iriye(入江昭)之外,像研究日本近代的 Takashi Fujitani(成名作 Splendid Monarchy: Power and Pageantry in Modern Japan )、日本思想史大家 Tetsuo Najita(代表作 Visions of Virtue in Tokugawa Japan: The Kaitokudo Merchant Academy of Osaka,此書日文版由子安宣邦翻譯),後起新秀内田じゅん(Jun Uchida,代表作 Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945 )。The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 的編輯之一,日裔學者Satoko Oka Norimatsu (乗松聡子,其與同刊另一位編輯 Gavan McCormack 合著的 Resistant Islands: Okinawa Confronts Japan and the United States 方由中國社會科學文獻出版社出版中譯本《沖繩之怒:美日同盟下的抗爭》,此書亦在2013年出版日譯本)、醫療史大家栗山茂久(Shigehisa Kuriyama,代表作The Expressiveness of the Body and the Divergence of Greek and Chinese Medicine,臺灣曾由究竟出版引進,題為《身體的語言》)等都有簽署。

其他尚有後殖民研究與亞洲歷史研究的要角 Prasenjit Duara (杜贊奇,他的中國研究比日本研究來得多,筆者能想到沾上邊的原因,或許與他研究過滿洲國有關),中籍新秀楊大慶(Daqing Yang,代表作 Technology of Empire: Telecommunications and Japanese Expansion in Asia, 1883-1945 )。倒是韓裔學者似乎只有文有美(Yumi Moon,代表作 Populist Collaborators The Ilchinhoe and the Japanese Colonization of Korea, 1896–1910 ),近年來很重要的 Gi-Wook Shin 卻沒看到,是比較意外的。

說起來,這份名單實在是令對日本史學界略知一二的人不敢輕忽,簽署者的分量十足,囊括了英語世界中日本史研究的老、中、青三代,如Peter Duus、Tetsuo Najita 都是七八十歲高齡的先驅大老,可惜我們的媒體只抄抄外電,沒有能力解讀這份名單,甚至還有一些地方寫錯了。所以自己不揣淺陋,花了一點時間用自己破爛的英文能力翻譯了中文版,順道點幾位耳聞過的研究者,說明連署者的份量,希望能幫助大家了解這份公開信的份量。此份公開信原文有上網,可見H-Net(有英、日文版)。
在臺灣,慰安婦問題相對邊緣,我們對其他國家的慰安婦狀況了解也相當有限。婦女救援基金會對此問題著力最深,也在1999年出版《臺灣慰安婦報告》。2009年朱德蘭女士的《臺灣慰安婦》仍是目前最全面的研究著作。這個月初,臺灣最後的慰安婦受害者之一美女阿嬤過世,目前台灣所知的慰安婦阿嬤僅餘4位在世。
婦援會為慰安婦議題所架設的網站:阿嬤的網站--慰安婦與女性人權虛擬博物館
注意:這份翻譯並沒有獲得任何授權,單純作為練習與議題傳播之用,不應視為正式的中文版。如有翻譯錯誤亦請告知,感謝。

為支持日本國內歷史學者們而發的公開信 OPEN LETTER IN SUPPORT OF HISTORIANS IN JAPAN


以下署名的日本研究者們,在此表達吾等與日本國內許多勇敢的歷史學者們一致的立場。這些日本歷史學家探求一種準確與正直的亞洲二戰史。正因日本是我們的研究領域,同時也是我們之中許多人的第二故鄉,我們懷著一份如何學習與紀念日本與亞洲歷史的共同關切寫下這封信。

在這重要的紀念週年,這封信也為了慶祝日本與其近鄰間七十年的和平而寫成。戰後日本的民主歷程、軍隊的文官掌控、警察權的約制、政治上的寬容,伴隨對科學的貢獻與向其他國家慷慨的援助,這一切都值得一齊慶祝。

但歷史解釋的問題卻橫阻在慶祝這些成就之前。被稱為「慰安婦」的體系是最引起紛爭的一個歷史議題。這個議題在日本乃至韓半島(Korea)與中國國內國族主義者的謾罵聲中變得如此扭曲,以至於許多學者,連同記者與政治家們迷失了歷史探究的基本目標,即是理解人類境況並立志改進之。

在受難者的國家,以國族主義目的利用前「慰安婦」的苦難使得國際性的最終處理方案更加困難,也進一步損害了這些女性自身的人性尊嚴。而否認或對曾發生在她們身上的一切輕描淡寫也同樣令人無法接受。在二十世紀許多的戰時性暴力以及軍方賣淫的案例之中,「慰安婦」體系以其巨大的規模、軍部門系統性的管理,還有它對日本殖民或佔領區域年少、窮困以及弱勢的婦女的剝削而臭名昭彰。

通往「正確的歷史」並沒有易行之途。許多日本帝國軍部的檔案已被銷毀。那些向軍方提供女性的地方皮條客們的行動,可能從未被紀錄。但歷史學者們業已發掘許多表明軍部參與女性轉輸和妓院監管的文件。重要的證據也來自受難者的證詞。儘管她們的故事各式各樣,並受到記憶的矛盾性影響,但她們提供的集體紀錄令人信服,且可為官方文件乃至軍人及其他口述材料佐證。

歷史學者們爭執著「慰安婦」的切確人數,而這可能永遠不會有無可置疑的答案。確立合理的受難者估數字是重要的。但最終,無論這個數字被評斷在數萬或數十萬都不會改變這個事實:其在日本帝國與它的交戰區域中施行的剝削。

一些歷史學者們也爭辯日本軍部參與此事的程度有多直接,以及女性是否被強制成為「慰安婦」。然而大量的女性在違背她們意志的情況下被拘束並遭受恐怖的暴行已是確證昭然。使用那些專注於特定用詞或孤立文書,拘泥於法律文字的論證來挑戰受難者的證詞,既是錯失她們獸性遭遇(their brutalization)的根本問題,也是否認背後更大的脈絡——剝削她們的殘忍體系。

正如我們在日本的同行一般,我們相信只有小心的衡量與脈絡性的評估每一個過去的軌跡才能產生一部正直的史著。那樣的作品必須抵抗國族的與性別的偏見,並且免於政府的操縱、審查與私下威嚇。我們捍衛歷史研究的自由,而我們呼籲所有的政府一同捍衛這份自由。

許多國家仍在為承認過去的不義努力。歷經四十年,美國政府才為其在二戰期間的集中營賠償日裔美國人。直到廢除奴隸制度一個世紀之後,對非裔美國人的平等承諾才在美國法律中實踐,而種族主義的現實仍在美國社會中根深蒂固。沒有一個19與20世紀的帝國主義霸權,包括美國、歐洲各國與日本,可以聲稱已經充分地處理他們種族主義、殖民主意與戰爭的歷史,乃至他們強加在世界各地無數平民身上的苦痛。

今日的日本重視每個個人的生活與權利,包括最弱勢的一群。如今,無論在海外或境內,日本政府都不再默許如軍部「慰安婦」一般對婦女的剝削體系。即便在當時,一些官員仍以道德理由抗議。然戰時政權強迫個人為服務國家完全地奉獻,造成了日本人民自身與其他亞洲人民巨大的痛苦。沒有人應當再次承受此般境況。

這一年,提供日本政府一次展現領袖風範,同時從言語與行動兩方面處理日本殖民統治與戰爭侵略歷史的機會。在四月對美國國會的演講之中,首相安倍談論人權的普世價值、人類安全的重要性以及面對日本對其他國家造成的苦痛。我們為這些主張(sentiment)喝采,同時敦促首相為這一切無畏地採取行動。

承認過往錯誤的進程將強健民主的社會並培養國家間的合作。正因「慰安婦」議題的核心,乃是女性平等的權利與尊嚴,故此議題的最終處理將會是日本、東亞與世界邁向男女平等的歷史性一步。

在我們的課堂中,來自日本、韓半島、中國以及其他地區的學生互相尊重、正直地討論這些困難的議題。他們的世代,將與我們遺贈的過往紀錄一同生存。為了幫助他們建立一個免於性暴力與人口販賣的世界,也為了促進亞洲內部的和平與友誼,我們必定要留下一份盡可能完整與無偏,對過往錯誤的清算(accounting)。

簽署人(譯按:有漢字或日文名者參照譯者知識與日文版公開信括註漢字與日文名,一些日裔學者如 Takashi Fujitani 、 Tetsuo Najita 和以 Hello Kitty 研究聞名的 Christine Yano 僅有羅馬化的日語姓名,並沒有日文姓名):
  • Daniel Aldrich, Professor of Political Science, Purdue University.
  • Jeffrey Alexander, Associate Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-Parkside.
  • Anne Allison, Professor of Cultural Anthropology, Duke University.
  • Marnie Anderson, Associate Professor of History, Smith College.
  • E. Taylor Atkins, Presidential Teaching Professor of History, Northern Illinois University.
  • Paul D. Barclay, Associate Professor of History and Asian Studies Program Chair, Lafayette College.
  • Jan Bardsley, Associate Professor of Asian Studies, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
  • James R. Bartholomew, Professor, Department of History, The Ohio State University.
  • Brett de Bary, Professor, Asian Studies and Comparative Literature, Cornell University.
  • Michael Baskett, Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Film and Media Studies, University of Kansas.
  • Alan Baumler, Professor of History, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
  • Alexander R. Bay, Associate Professor, History Department, Chapman University.
  • Theodore C. Bestor, Professor of Social Anthropology, Harvard University.
  • Victoria Bestor, Director of the North American Coordinating Council on Japanese Library Resources.
  • Davinder Bhowmik, Associate Professor of Asian Languages and Literature, University of Washington.
  • Herbert Bix, Professor Emeritus of History and Sociology, Binghamton University.
  • Daniel Botsman, Professor of History, Yale University.
  • Michael Bourdaghs, Professor of Japanese Literature, East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago.
  • Thomas Burkman, Research Professor of Asian Studies Emeritus, SUNY Buffalo.
  • Susan L. Burns, Associate Professor of History, East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago.
  • Eric Cazdyn, Distinguished Professor of Aesthetics and Politics, Department of East Asian Studies & Centre for Comparative Literature, University of Toronto.
  • Parks M. Coble, Professor of History, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
  • Haruko Taya Cook, Instructor of Languages and Cultures, William Paterson University.
  • Theodore F. Cook, Professor of History, William Paterson University.
  • Bruce Cumings, Professor of History, University of Chicago.
  • Katarzyna Cwiertka, Professor of Modern Japanese Studies, Universiteit Leiden.
  • Charo D'Etcheverry, Associate Professor of Japanese Literature, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Eric Dinmore, Associate Professor of History, Hampden-Sydney College.
  • Lucia Dolce, Chair, Centre for the Study of Japanese Religions, University of London, SOAS.
  • Ronald P. Dore, Honorary Fellow, London School of Economics.
  • John W. Dower, Professor Emeritus of History, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Mark Driscoll, Professor of East Asian Studies, UNC, Chapel Hill.
  • Prasenjit Duara(杜贊奇), Raffles Professor of Humanities, National University of Singapore.
  • Alexis Dudden, Professor of History, University of Connecticut.
  • Martin Dusinberre, Professor of Global History, University of Zürich.
  • Peter Duus, Professor of History (Emeritus), Stanford University.
  • Steve Ericson, Associate Professor of History, Dartmouth College.
  • Elyssa Faison, Associate Professor, University of Oklahoma.
  • Norma Field, Professor Emerita of East Asian Studies, University of Chicago.
  • W. Miles Fletcher, Professor of History, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
  • Petrice R. Flowers, Associate Professor Political Science, University of Hawaii.
  • Joshua A. Fogel, Professor of History, York University, Toronto.
  • Sarah Frederick, Associate Professor of Japanese and Comparative Literature, Boston University.
  • Dennis J. Frost, Wen Chao Chen Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, Kalamazoo College.
  • Sabine Fruhstuck, Professor of Modern Japanese Cultural Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara.
  • James Fujii, Associate Professor, East Asian Languages and Literatures, University of California, Irvine.
  • Takashi Fujitani, Professor of History, University of Toronto.
  • Sheldon M. Garon, Professor of History and East Asian Studies, Princeton University.
  • Timothy S. George, Professor of History, University of Rhode Island.
  • Christopher Gerteis, Chair, Japan Research Centre, SOAS, University of London.
  • Carol Gluck, Professor of History, Columbia University.
  • Andrew Gordon, Professor of History, Harvard University.
  • Helen Hardacre, Professor of Religions and Society, Harvard University.
  • Harry Harootunian, Emeritus Professor of History, New York University; Adjunct Professor of Japanese History, Columbia University.
  • Tsuyoshi Hasegawa(長谷川毅), Professor of History, University of California at Santa Barbara.
  • Akiko Hashimoto(橋本明子), Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Pittsburgh.
  • Sally A. Hastings, Associate Professor of History, Purdue University.
  • Tom Havens, Professor of History, Northeastern University.
  • Kenji Hayao(早尾健二), Associate Professor, Political Science Department, Boston College.
  • Laura Hein, Professor of History, Northwestern University.
  • Robert Hellyer, Associate Professor of History, Wake Forest College.
  • Manfred Henningsen, Professor of Political Science, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
  • Christopher L. Hill, Assistant Professor of Japanese Literature, University of Michigan.
  • Katsuya Hirano(平野克弥), Associate Professor of History, UCLA.
  • David L. Howell, Professor of Japanese History, Harvard University.
  • Douglas Howland, Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
  • James L. Huffman, H. Orth Hirt Professor of History Emeritus, Wittenberg University.
  • Janet Hunter, Saji Professor of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science.
  • Akira Iriye(入江昭), Professor Emeritus, Harvard University.
  • Rebecca Jennison, Professor, Department of Humanities, Kyoto Seika University.
  • William Johnston, Professor of History, Wesleyan University.
  • John Junkerman, Documentary Filmmaker.
  • Ikumi Kaminishi, Associate Professor of Art and Art History, Tufts University.
  • Ken Kawashima, Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, University of Toronto.
  • William W. Kelly, Professor of Anthropology, Yale University.
  • James Ketelaar, Professor of History, University of Chicago.
  • R. Keller Kimbrough, Associate Professor, University of Colorado at Boulder.
  • Miriam Kingsberg, Assistant Professor of History, University of Colorado.
  • Jeff Kingston, Director of Asian Studies and Professor of History, Temple University, Japan.
  • Victor Koschmann, Professor of History, Cornell University.
  • Emi Koyama, Independent Scholar, Japan-U.S. Feminist Network for Decolonization (FeND).
  • Ellis S. Krauss, Professor Emeritus, University of California, San Diego.
  • Josef Kreiner, Professor Emeritus, Rheinische Freidrich-Wilhelms Universität Bonn.
  • Shigehisa Kuriyama(栗山茂久), Reischauer Institute Professor of Cultural History, Harvard University.
  • Peter Kuznick, Professor of History and Director, Nuclear Studies Institute, American University.
  • Thomas Lamarre, James McGill Professor, East Asian Studies , Art History and
  • Communications Studies, McGill University
  • Andrew Levidis, Fellow, Reischauer Institute, Harvard University.
  • Ilse Lenz, Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany.
  • Mark Lincicome, Associate Professor, Department of History, College of the Holy Cross.
  • Sepp Linhart, Professor Emeritus of Japanese Studies and Sociology, University of Vienna.
  • Yukio Lippit, Professor of History of Art and Architecture, Harvard University.
  • Angus Lockyer, Lecturer in the History of Japan, Department of History, SOAS, University of London.
  • Susan Orpett Long, Professor of Anthropology, John Carroll University.
  • David B. Lurie, Associate Professor of Japanese History and Literature, Columbia University.
  • Vera Mackie, Professor of Asian Studies, University of Wollongong.
  • Wolfram Manzenreiter, Professor of Japanese Studies, University of Vienna.
  • William Marotti, Associate Professor of History, UCLA.
  • Y. Tak Matsusaka(松阪慶久), Professor of History, Wellesley College.
  • Trent Maxey, Associate Professor of Asian Languages and Civilizations and History, Amherst College.
  • James L. McClain Professor of History, Brown University.
  • Gavan McCormack, Professor Emeritus of History, Australian National University.
  • Melissa McCormick, Professor, Harvard University.
  • David McNeill, Journalist and Professor, Sophia University.
  • Mark Metzler, Professor of History, University of Texas at Austin.
  • Ian J. Miller, Professor of History, Harvard University.
  • Laura Miller, Ei'ichi Shibusawa-Seigo Arai Endowed Professor of Japanese Studies, University of Missouri-St. Louis.
  • Janis Mimura, Associate Professor, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
  • Richard H. Minear, Professor of History (Emeritus), University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
  • Yuki Miyamoto, Associate Professor of Religious Studies, DePaul University.
  • Barbara Molony, Professor of History, Santa Clara University.
  • Yumi Moon(文有美), Associate Professor of History, Stanford.
  • Aaron Moore, Lecturer in East Asian History, The University of Manchester.
  • Tessa Morris-Suzuki, Professor of Japanese History, Australian National University.
  • Aurelia George Mulgan, Professor of Japanese Politics, University of New South Wales.
  • R. Taggart Murphy, Professor, International Political Economy, University of Tsukuba, Tokyo Campus.(筑波大學東京校區)
  • Tetsuo Najita, Professor Emeritus of History, University of Chicago.
  • Miri Nakamura(中村美理), Associate Professor of Japanese Literature, College of East Asian Studies, Wesleyan University.
  • John Nathan, Takashima Professor of Japanese Cultural Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara.
  • Christopher Nelson, Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  • Satoko Oka Norimatsu(乗松聡子), Editor, Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus.
  • Markus Nornes, Professor of Asian Cinema, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
  • David Tobaru Obermiller( デビッド·桃原·オバミラー), Associate Professor, Department of History & Japanese Studies Program, Gustavus Adolphus College.
  • Eiko Otake(尾竹永子), Visiting artist, Wesleyan University.
  • Simon Partner, Professor of History, Duke University.
  • T.J. Pempel, Jack M. Forcey Professor of Political Science for Study of East Asian Politics, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Matthew Penney, Associate Professor, Concordia University.
  • Samuel E. Perry, Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, Brown University.
  • Catherine Phipps, Associate Professor, University of Memphis
  • Leslie Pincus, Associate Professor of History, University of Michigan.
  • Morgan Pitelka, Associate Professor and Director of the Carolina Asia Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  • Janet Poole, Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, University of Toronto.
  • Roger Pulvers, Author and Translator, Sydney, Australia.
  • Steve Rabson, Professor Emeritus of East Asian Studies, Brown University.
  • Fabio Rambelli, Chair, Department of East Asian Languages and Cultural Studies and Professor of Japanese Religions and Cultural History, University of California, Santa Barbara.
  • Mark Ravina, Professor of History, Emory University.
  • Steffi Richter, Professor of East Asian Studies, Universität Leipzig.
  • Luke Roberts, Professor of History, University of California Santa Barbara.
  • Jennifer Robertson, Professor of Anthropology and History of Art, University of Michigan.
  • Jay Rubin, Professor Emeritus, Harvard University.
  • Ken Ruoff, Professor of History and Director of the Center for Japanese Studies, Portland State University.
  • Jordan Sand, Professor of History, Georgetown University.
  • Wesley Sasaki-Uemura(ウエスリー・佐々木・植村), Associate Professor of Japanese History, University of Utah.
  • Ellen Schattschneider, Associate Professor of Anthropology and Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies, Brandeis University.
  • Andre Schmid, Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, University of Toronto.
  • Amanda C. Seaman, Associate Professor of Japanese and Director of Comparative Literature, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
  • Ethan Segal, Associate Professor of History, Michigan State University.
  • Wolfgang Seifert, Professor Emeritus of Japanese Studies, University of Heidelberg.
  • Mark Selden, Senior Research Associate, Cornell University; Editor, Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus.
  • Franziska Seraphim, Associate Professor of History, Boston College.
  • Sayuri Guthrie Shimizu(さゆり ・ガスリー・清水), Professor of History, Rice University.
  • Eiko Maruko Siniawer( 英子・丸子・シナワ), Associate Professor of History, Williams College.
  • Patricia Sippel, Professor, Toyo Eiwa University.
  • Richard Smethurst, Professor Emeritus of History, University of Pittsburgh.
  • Kerry Smith, Associate Professor of History, Brown University.
  • Daniel Sneider, Associate Director for Research, Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stanford University.
  • M. William Steele, Professor of History, International Christian University.
  • Brigitte Steger, Senior Lecturer in Modern Japanese Studies, University of Cambridge.
  • Stefan Tanaka, Professor of Communication, University of California, San Diego.
  • Alan Tansman, Professor of Japanese Literature, University of California Berkeley.
  • Sarah Thal, Associate Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Michael F. Thies, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, UCLA
  • Mark Tilton, Associate Professor of Political Science, Purdue University.
  • Julia Adeney Thomas, Associate Professor of History, University of Notre Dame.
  • John Whittier Treat, Emeritus Professor, Yale University; Professor, Ewha Womans University.
  • Hitomi Tonomura, Professor of History, University of Michigan
  • Jun Uchida(内田じゅん), Associate Professor of History, Stanford University.
  • J. Keith Vincent, Associate Professor of Japanese and Comparative Literature, Boston University.
  • Stephen Vlastos, Professor of History, University of Iowa.
  • Ezra F. Vogel(傅高義), Professor Emeritus, Harvard University.
  • Klaus Vollmer, Professor of Japanese Studies, LMU Munich University.
  • Anne Walthall, Professor Emerita of History, University of California, Irvine.
  • Max Ward, Assistant Professor of History, Middlebury College.
  • Lori Watt, Associate Professor of History, Washington University in St. Louis.
  • Gennifer Weisenfeld, Professor, Duke University.
  • Michael Wert, Associate Professor, Marquette University.
  • Kären Wigen, Professor of History, Stanford University.
  • Tomomi Yamaguchi(山口智美), Associate Professor of Anthropology, Montana State University.
  • Samuel H. Yamashita(山下サムエル秀雄), Henry E. Sheffield Professor of History, Pomona College.
  • Daqing Yang(楊大慶), Associate Professor, George Washington University.
  • Christine Yano, Professor of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
  • Marcia Yonemoto, Associate Professor of History, University of Colorado Boulder.
  • Lisa Yoneyama(米山リサ), Professor of East Asian Studies, University of Toronto.
  • Theodore Jun Yoo, Associate Professor of History, University of Hawaii.
  • Takashi Yoshida(吉田俊), Professor, Western Michigan University.
  • Louise Young, Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Eve Zimmerman, Barbara Morris Caspersen Associate Professor of Humanities & Associate Professor of Japanese, Wellesley University.
  • Reinhard Zöllner, Professor of Japanese and Korean Studies, University of Bonn.

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這份聲明起自2015年3月在芝加哥舉辦的亞洲研究協會(Association for Asian Studies)年會,以及隨後一大群日本研究者的線上討論。它只代表簽署者的意見,並不代表任何組織或機構。
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